Phonics Letters and Sounds
In Phase 2, letters and their sounds are introduced one at a time. A set of letters is taught each week, in the following sequence:
Set 1: s, a, t, p
Set 2: i, n, m, d
Set 3: g, o, c, k
Set 4: ck, e, u, r
Set 5: h, b, f, ff, l, ll, ss
Upon beginning Phase 3, children will usually be blending and segmenting the words containing the sounds taught in Phase 2.
Set 6: j, v, w, x
Set 7: y, z, zz, qu
Consonant Digraphs: ch, sh, th, ng
Vowel Digraphs: ai, ee, igh, oa, oo, oo, ar, or, ur, ow, oi, ear, air, ure, er
In Phase 4, no new graphemes are introduced. The main aim of this phase is to consolidate the children's knowledge and to help them learn to read and spell words which have adjacent consonants, such as trap, string and milk.
In Phase Five, children will learn more graphemes and phonemes. For example, they already know 'ai' as in rain, but now they will be introduced to 'ay' as in day and 'a-e' as in make.
Alternative pronunciations for graphemes will also be introduced, e.g. 'ea' in tea, head and break.
Common Exception Words
Common exception words are words that can not be decoded by the children and are introduced during Phase 3 of Letters and Sounds.
Phase 3: he, she, we, me, be, was, you, they, all, are, my, her
Phase 4: said, have, like, so, do, some, come, were, there, little, one, when, out, what
Phase 5: oh, their, people, Mr, Mrs, looked, called, asked, could